Xu Laboratory

Selected Publications


Yang S, Wu T, Xu TH, de Waal PW, He Y, Pu M, Chen Y, DeBruine ZJ, Zhang B, Zaidi SA, Popov P, Guo Y, Han GW, Lu Y, Suino-Powell K, Song S, Harikumar KG, Miller LJ, Katritch V, Xu HE, Shui W, Stevens RC, Melcher K, Zhao S, Xu F. 2018. Crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor in a ligand-free state. Nature.

Yin W, Zhou XE, Yang D, de Waal PW, Want M, Dai A, Cai X, Haung CY, Liu P, Wang X, Yin Y, Liu B, Zhou Y, Wang J, Liu H, Caffrey M, Melcher K, Xu Y, Wang MW, Xu HE, Jiang Y. 2018. Crystal structure of the human 5-HT1B serotonin receptor bound to an inverse agonist. Cell Disc 4(12).

Kang Y*, Kuybeda O*, de Waal PW*, Mukherjee S, Van Eps N, Dutka P, Zhou XE, Bartesaghi A, Erramilli S, Morizumi T, Gu X, Yin Y, Liu P, Jiang Y, Meng X, Zhao G, Melcher K, Ernst OP, Kossiakoff AA, Subramaniam S, Xu HE. 2018. Cryo-EM structure of human rhodopsin bound to an inhibitory G protein. Nature.     Article


Zhou XE, He Y, de Waal PW, Gao X, Kang Y, Van Eps N, Yin Y, Pal K, Goswami D, White TA, Barty A, Latorraca NR, Chapman HN, Hubbell WL, Dror RO, Stevens RC, Cherezov V, Gurevich VV, Griffin PR, Ernst OP, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2017. Identification of phosphorylation codes for arrestin recruitment by G protein-coupled receptors. Cell 170(3):457–469.e13.     Article
*Cover of Cell


Golani LK, Wallace-Povirk A, Deis SM, Wong J, Ke J, Gu X, Raghaven S, Wilson MR, Li X, Polin L, de Waal PW, White K, Kushner J, O’Connor C, Hou Z, Xu HE, Melcher K, Dann CE 3rd, Matherly LH, Gangjee A. 2016. Tumor targeting with novel 6-substituted phyrrolo [2,3-d] pyrimidine antifolates with heteroatom bridge substitutions via cellular uptake by folate receptor a and the proteon-coupled folate transporter and inhibitor of de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis. J Med Chem 59(17):7856–7876.     Article

Zhou XE, Gao X, Barty A, Kang Y, He Y, Liu W, Ishchenko A, White TA, Yefanov O, Han GW, Xu Q, de Waal PW, Suino-Powell KM, Boutet S, Williams GJ,Wang M, Li D, Caffrey M, Chapman HN, Spence JC, Fromme P, Weierstall U, Stevens RC, Cherezov V, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2016. X-ray laser diffraction for structure determination of the rhodopsin-arrestin complex. Sci Data 3:160021.   Article


Ke J, Ma H, Gu X, Thelen A, Brunzelle JS, Li J, Xu HE, Melcher K. 2015. Structural basis for recognition of diverse transcriptional repressors by the TOPLESS family of corepressors. Sci Adv 1(6):e1500107.     PubMed

Zhang F*, Yao J*, Ke J*, Zhang L, Lam VQ, Xin X-F, Zhou XE, Chen J, Brunzelle J, Griffin PR, Zhou M, Xu HE, Melcher K, He YS. 2015. Structural basis of JAZ-mediated repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signaling. Nature 525:269–273.     Article

Kang Y, Zhou XE Gao X, He Y, Liu W, Ishchenko A, Barty A, White TA, Yefanov O, Han GW, Xu Q, de Waal PW, Ke J, Tan MHE, Zhang C, Moeller A, West GM, Pascal B, Eps NV, Caro1 LN, Vishnivetskiy SA, Lee RJ, Suino-Powell KM, Gu X, Pal K, Ma J, Zhi XY, Boutet S, Williams GJ, Messerschmidt M, Gati C, Zatsepin NA, Wang D, James D, Basu S, Roy-Chowdhury S, Conrad C, Coe J, Liu H, Lisova S, Kupitz C, Grotjohann I, Fromme R, Jiang Y, Tan M, Yang H, Li J, Wang M, Zheng Z, Li D, Howe N, Zhao Y, Standfuss J, Diederichs K, Dong Y, Potter CS, Carragher B, Caffrey M, Jiang H, Chapman HN, Spence JCH, Fromme P, Weierstall U, Ernst OP, Katritch V, Gurevich VV, Griffin PR, Hubbell WL, Stevens RC, Cherezov V, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2015. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin determined by femtosecond X-ray laser. Nature 532:561–567.
*Featured in Nature News & Views

Zhi X, Zhou XE, He Y, Searose-Xu K, Zhang CL, Tsai CC, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2015. Structural basis for corepressor assembly by the orphan nuclear receptor TLX. Genes Dev 29(4):440–450      PubMed


Sridharamurthy M, Kovach A, Zhao Y, Zhu JK, Xu HE, Swaminathan K, Melcher K. 2014. H2O2 inhibits ABA-signaling protein phosphatase HAB1. PLoS One 9(12):e113643.      PubMed

Li X*, Wang L*, Zhou XE*, Ke J, de Waal PW, Gu X, Tan MHE, Wang D, Wu D, Xu HE, Melcher K. 2014. Structural basis of AMPK regulation by adenine nucleotides and glycogen. Cell Res 25(1):50–66      PubMed

*Authors contributed equally this work
**Highlighted in editorial in Cell Research

He Y, Yi W, Powell K, Zhou XE, Tolbert D, Tang X, Yang JC, Yang H, Shi J, Hou L, Jiang H, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2014. Structures and mechanism for the design of highly potent glucocorticoids. Cell Res 24:713 –726      PubMed     Article

Ng LM, Melcher K, Teh BT, Xu HE. 2014. Abscisic acid perception and signaling: structural mechanisms and applications. Acta Pharma Sin 35(5):567–584     PubMed

Tan MH, Li JY, Xu HE, Melcher K, Yong EL. 2014. Androgen receptor: structure, prostate cancer, and drug discovery. Acta Pharma Sin 36(1):3–23     PubMed

Tan JZ, Yan Y, Wang XX, Jiang Y, Xu HE. 2014. EZH2: biology, disease, and structure-based drug discovery. Acta Pharma Sin 35(2):161–174.     PubMed

Zhi X, Zhou XE, He Y, Zechner C, Suino-Powell KM, Kliewer SA, Melcher K, Mangelsdorf DJ, Xu HE. 2014. Structural insights into gene repression by the orphan nuclear receptor SHP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(2):839–844.     PubMed


Ban T, Ke J, Chen R, Gu X, Tan MH, Zhou XE, Kang Y, Melcher K, Zhu JK, Xu HE. 2013. Structure of a PLS-class pentatricopeptide repeat protein provides insights into mechanism of RNA recognition. J Biol Chem 288(44):31540–31548.     PubMed     Article

Cao M, Liu X, Zhang Y, Xue X, Zhou XE, Melcher K, Gao P, Wang F, Zeng L, Zhao Y, Zhao Y, Deng P, Zhong D, Zhu JK, Xu HE, Xu Y. 2013. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants. Cell Res 23(8):1043–1054.     PubMed     Article

Chen C, Ke J, Zhou XE, Yi W, Brunzelle JS, Li J, Yong EL,  Xu HE, Melcher K. 2013. Structural basis for molecular recongition of folic acid by folate receptors. Nature 500: 486–489.     PubMed     Article

Jiang L, Liu X, Xiong G, Liu H, Chen F, Wang L, Meng X, Liu G, Yu H, Yuan Y, Yi W, Zhao L, Ma H, He Y, Wu Z, Melcher K, Qian Q, Xu HE, Wang Y, Li J. 2013. DWARF 53 acts as a repressor of stringolactone signalling in rice. Nature 504(7480):401–405.     PubMed     Article

Joiner DM, Ke J, Zhong Z, Xu HE, Williams BO. 2013. LRP5 and LRP6 in development and disease. Trends Endocrinol Metab 24(1):31–39.     PubMed

Ke J, Chen RZ, Ban T, Zhou XE, Gu X, Tan MH, Chen C, Kang Y, Brunzelle JS, Zhu JK, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2013. Structural basis for RNA recognition by a dimeric PPR-protein complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol 20(12):1377–1382.     PubMed     Article

Ke J, Harikumar KG, Jurecky C, Chen C, Gu X, Wang L, Parker N, Cheng Z, Xu W, Williams BO, Melcher K, Miller LJ, Xu HE. 2013. Structure and function of Norrin in assembly and activation of a Frizzled 4–Lrp5/6 complex. Genes Dev 27(21):2305–2319.     PubMed     Article

Ke J, Xu HE, Williams BO. 2013. Lipid modification in Wnt structure and function. Curr Opin Lipidol 24(2):129–133.     PubMed

Lash LL, Wallar BJ, Turner JD, Vroegop SM, Kilkuskie RE, Kitchen-Goosen SM, Xu HE, Alberts AS. 2013. Small-molecule intramimics of formin auto-inhibition: a new strategy to target the cytoskeletal remodeling machinery in cancer cells. Cancer Res 73(22):6793–6803.     PubMed

Li Q, Yan Y, Wang X, Gong B, Tang X, Shi J, Xu HE, Yi W. 2013. Water as a green solvent for efficient synthesis of isocoumarins through microwave-accelerated and Rh/Cu-catalyzed C-H/O-H bond functionalization. RSC Advances 3(45):23402–23408.

Pal K , Melcher K, Xu HE. 2013. Structure modeling using genetically engineered crosslinking. Cell 155(6):1207–1208.     PubMed

Tan MH, Zhou XE, Soon FF, Li X, Li J, Yong EL, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2013. The crystal structure of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2E3/PNR ligand binding domain reveals a dimeric auto-repressed conformation. PLoS One 8(9):e74359.     PubMed     Article

Wacker D, Wang C, Katritch V, Han GW, Huang XP, Vardy E, McCorvy JD, Jiang Y, Chu M, Siu FY, Liu W,  Xu HE, Cherezov V, Roth BL, Stevens RC. 2013. Structural features for functional selectivity at serotonin receptors. Science 340(6132):615–619.     PubMed

Wang C, Jiang Y, Ma J, Wu H, Wacker D, Katritch V, Han GW, Liu W, Huang XP, Vardy E, McCorvy JD, Gao X, Zhou EX, Melcher K, Zhang C, Bai F, Yang H, Yang L, Jiang H, Roth BL, Cherezov V, Stevens RC, Xu HE. 2013. Structural basis for molecular recognition at serotonin receptors. Science 340(6132):610–614.     PubMed

Wang X, Yunnan Y, Gong B, Tang X, Li Q, Meng Y, Xu HE, Yi W. 2013. Efficient synthesis of functionalized 1-oxo-1-phenyl-2-acetic acids through Ru(II)-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society 34(10):3143–3146.

West GM, Pascal BD, Ng LM, Soon FF, Melcher K, Xu HE, Chalmers MJ, Griffin PR. 2013. Protein conformation ensembles monitored by HDX reveal a structural rationale for abscisic acid signaling protein affinities and activities. Structure 21(2):229–235.     PubMed

Zhao LH, Zhou XE, Wu ZS, Yi W, Xu Y, Li S, Xu TH, Liu Y, Chen RZ, Kovach A, Kang Y, Hou L, He Y, Xie C, Song W, Zhong D, Xu Y, Wang Y, Li J, Zhang C, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2013. Crystal structures of two phytohormone signal-transducing α/β hydrolases: karrikin-signaling KAI2 and stringolactone-signaling DWARF14. Cell Res 23(3):436–439.     PubMed


Blind RD, Pineda-Torra I, Xu Y, Xu HE, Garabedian MJ. 2012. Ligand structural motifs can decouple glucorticoid receptor transcriptional activation from target promoter occupancy. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 420(4):839–844.     PubMed

Fu T, Choi SE, Kim DH, Seok S, Suino-Powell KM, Xu HE, Kemper JK. 2012. Aberrantly elevated microRNA-34a in obesity attenuates hepatic responses to FGF19 by targeting a membrane coreceptor β-Klotho. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(40):16137–16142.     PubMed

Ke J, Zhang C, Harikumar KG, Zylstra-Diegel CR, Wang L, Mowry LE, Miller LJ, Williams BO, Xu HE. 2012. Modulation of β-catenin signaling by glucagon receptor activation. PLoS One 7(3): e33676.     PubMed     Article

Martin KR, Narang P, Xu Y, Kauffman AL, Petit J, Xu HE, Meurice N, MacKeigan JP. 2012. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of PTPσ through an integrative virtual and biochemical approach. PLoS One 7(11):e50217.     PubMed     Article

Pal K, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2012. Structure and mechanism for recognition of peptide hormones by Class B G protein-coupled receptors. Acta Pharma Sin 33(3): 300–311.     PubMed

Soon FF, Ng LM, Zhou XE, West GM, Kovach A, Tan MH, Suino-Powell KM, He Y, Xu Y, Chalmers MJ, Brunzelle JS, Zhang H, Yang H, Jiang H, Li J, Yong EL, Cutler S, Zhu JK, Griffin PR, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2012. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases. Science 335(6064):85–88.     PubMed

Soon FF, Suino-Powell KM, Li J, Yong EL, Xu HE, Melcher K. 2012. Abscisic acid signaling: thermal stability shift assays as tool to analyze hormone perception and signal transduction. PLoS One 7(10): e47857.     PubMed     Article

Tiong CT, Chen C, Zhang SJ, Li J, Soshilov A, Denison MS, Lee LS, Tam VH, Wong SP, Xu HE, Yong EL. 2012. A novel prenylflavone restricts breast cancer cell growth through AhR-mediated destabilization of ERα protein. Carcinogenesis 33(5):1089–1097.     PubMed

Xu HE, Xiao RP. 2012. A new era for GPCR research: structures, biology and drug discovery. Acta Pharma Sin 33(3):289–290.     Article

Yu S, Xu HE. 2012. Couple dynamics: PPARγ and its ligand partners. Structure 20(1): 2–4.      PubMed

Zhi X, Zhou XE, Melcher K, Motola DL, Gelmedin V, Hawdon J, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Xu HE. 2012. Structural conservation of ligand binding reveals a bile acid–like signaling pathway in nematodes. J Biol Chem 287(7):4894–4903.     PubMed

Zhou EX, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2012. Structure and activation of rhodopsin. Acta Pharma Sin 33(3):291–299.     PubMed

Zhou XE, Soon FF, Ng LM, Kovach A, Suino-Powell KM, Li J, Yong EL, Zhu JK, Xu HE, Melcher K. 2012. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases. Plant Signal Behav 7(5):581–588.     PubMed


He Y, Xu Y, Zhang C, Gao X, Dykema KJ, Martin KR, Ke J, Hudson EA, Khoo SK, Resau JH, Alberts AS, MacKeigan JP, Furge KA, Xu HE. 2011. Identification of a lysosomal pathway that modulates glucocorticoid signaling and the inflammatory response. Sci Signal 4(180): ra44.      PubMed     Article  

Kir S, Beddow SA, Samuel VT, Miller P, Previs SF, Suino-Powell K, Xu HE, Shulman GI, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ. 2011. FGF19 as a postprandial, insulin-independent activator of hepatic protein and glycogen synthesis. Science 331(6024):1621–1624.     PubMed     Article  

Martin KR, Xu Y, Looyenga BD, Davis RJ, Wu CL, Tremblay ML, Xu HE, MacKeigan JP. 2011. Identification of PTP{sigma} as an autophagic phosphatase. J Cell Sci 124(Pt 5): 812-819.     PubMed     Article  

Niemi NM, Lanning NJ, Klomp JA, Tait SW, Xu Y, Dykema KJ, Murphy LO, Gaither LA, Xu HE, Furge KA, Green DR, MacKeigan JP. 2011. MK-STYX, a catalytically inactive phosphatase regulating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol 31(7):1357-1368.     PubMed     Article

Soon FF, Ng LM, Zhou XE, West GM, Kovach A, Tan MH, Suino-Powell KM, He Y, Xu Y, Chalmers MJ, Brunzelle JS, Zhang H, Yang H, Jiang H, Li J, Yong EL, Cutler S, Zhu JK, Griffin PR, Melcher K, Xu HE. 2012. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases. Science 335(6064):85-88.     PubMed     Article  

Xie Q, Wondergem R, Shen Y, Cavey G, Ke J, Thompson R, Bradley R, Daughtery-Holtrop J, Xu Y, Chen E, Omar H, Rosen N, Wenkert D, Xu HE, Vande Woude GF. 2011. Benzoquinone ansamycin 17AAG binds to mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel and inhibits cell invasion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108(10):4105-4110.      PubMed     Article  

Zhou XE, Suino-Powell KM, Xu Y, Chan CW, Tanabe O, Kruse SW, Reynolds R, Engel JD, Xu HE. 2011. The orphan nuclear receptor TR4 is a vitamin A-activated nuclear receptor. J Biol Chem 286(4): 2877-2885.     PubMed     Article


Melcher K, Xu Y, Ng LM, Zhou XE, Soon FF, Chinnusamy V, Suino-Powell KM, Kovach A, Tham FS, Cutler SR, Li J, Yong EL, Zhu JK, Xu HE. 2010. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17(9):1102-1108.     PubMed     Article  

Pioszak AA, Harikumar KG, Parker NR, Miller LJ, Xu HE. 2010. Dimeric arrangement of the parathyroid hormone receptor and a structural mechanism for ligand-induced dissociation. J Biol Chem 285(16):12435-12444.     PubMed     Article  

Schopfer FJ, Cole MP, Groeger AL, Chen CS, Khoo NK, Woodcock SR, Golin-Bisello F, Motanya UN, Li Y, Zhang J, Garcia-Barrio MT, Rudolph TK, Rudolph V, Bonacci G, Baker PR, Xu HE, Batthyany CI, Chen YE, Hallis TM, Freeman BA. 2010. Covalent peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ binding to nitro-fatty acids: endogenous ligands act as selective modulators. J Biol Chem 285(16): 12321–12333.     PubMed     Article  

Tolbert WD, Daugherty-Holtrop J, Gherardi E, Vande Woude GF, Xu HE. 2010. Structural basis for agonism and antagonism of hepatocyte growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(30):13264–13269.     PubMed     Article

Pioszak AA, Xu HE. 2008. Molecular recognition of parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP) by the extracellular domain of its G protein–coupled receptor PTH1R. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(13): 5034–5039     PubMed

Zhou XE, Suino-Powell KM, Li J, He Y, MacKeigan JP, Melcher K, Yong EL, Xu HE. 2010. Identification of SRC3/AIB1 as a preferred coactivator for hormone-activated androgen receptor. J Biol Chem 285(12):9161–9171.     PubMed     Article  

Zhou XE, Suino-Powell K, Ludidi PL, McDonnell DP, Xu HE. 2010. Expression, purification and primary crystallographic study of human androgen receptor in complex with DNA and coactivator motifs. Protein Expr Purif 71(1):21–27.      PubMed     Article  


Chakravarthy MV, Lodhi IJ, Yin L, Malapaka RV, Xu HE, Turk J, Semenkovich CF. 2009. Identification of a physiologically relevant endogenous ligand for PPARα in liver. Cell 138(3):476–488.     PubMed     Article

Knudsen BS, Zhao P, Resau J, Cottingham S, Gherardi E, Xu HE, Berghuis B, Daugherty J, Grabinski T, Toro J, Giambernardi T, Skinner RS, Gross M, Hudson E, Kort E, Lengyel E, Ventura A, West RA, Xie Q, Hay R, Vande Woude GF, Cao B. 2009. A novel multipurpose monoclonal antibody for evaluating human c-Met expression in preclinical and clinical settings. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 17(1):56–67.     PubMed  

Melcher K, Ng LM, Zhou XE, Soon FF, Xu Y, Suino-Powell KM, Park SY, Weiner FF, Fujii H, Chinnusamy V, Kovach A, Li J, Wang Y, Li J, Peterson FC, Jensen DR, Yong EL, Volkman BF, Cutler SR, Zhu JK, Xu HE. 2009. A gate-latch-lock mechanism for hormone signalling by abscisic acid receptors. Nature 462(7273):602–608.     PubMed     Article 

Miao J, Xiao Z, Kanamaluru D, Min G, Yau PM, Veenstra TD, Ellis E, Strom S, Suino-Powell K, Xu HE, Kemper JK. 2009. Bile acid signaling pathways increase stability of small heterodimer partner (SHP) by inhibiting ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Genes Dev 23(8):986–996.     PubMed     Article  

Pioszak A, Parker NR, Gardella TJ, Xu HE. 2009. Structural basis for parathyroid hormone-related protein binding to the parathyroid hormone receptor and design of conformation-selective peptides. J Biol Chem 21(2):196–211.     PubMed     Article  

Wang Z, Zhou XE, Motola DL, Gao X, Suino-Powell K, Conneely A, Ogata C, Sharma KK, Auchus RJ, Lok JB, Hawdon JM, Kliewer SA, Xu HE, Mangelsdorf DJ. 2009. Identification of the nuclear receptor DAF-12 as a therapeutic target in parasitic nematodes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(23):9138–9143.     PubMed      Article


Kruse SW, Suino-Powell K, Zhou XE, Kretschman JE, Reynolds R, Vonrhein C, Xu Y, Wang L, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, Xu HE. 2008. Identification of COUP-TFII orphan nuclear receptor as a retinoic acid-activated receptor. PLoS Biol 6(9):e227.     PubMed     Article  

Li Y, Kovach A, Suino-Powell K, Martynowski D, Xu HE. 2008. Structural and biochemical basis for the binding selectivity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ to PGC-1α. J Biol Chem 283(27): 19132–19139.     PubMed     Article  

Li Y, Zhang J, Schopfer FJ, Martynowski D, Garcia-Barrio MT, Kovach A, Suino-Powell K, Baker PR, Freeman BA, Chen YE, Xu HE. 2008. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPARg. Nat Struct Mol Biol 15(8): 865–867.     PubMed     Article

Pioszak AA, Parker NR, Suino-Powell K, Xu HE. 2008. Molecular recognition of corticotropin releasing factor by its G protein-coupled receptor CRFR1. J Biol Chem 283(47): 32900–32912.     PubMed     Article 

Pioszak AA, Xu HE. 2008. Molecular recognition of parathyroid hormone by its G protein-coupled receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(13):5034–5039.     PubMed     Article  

Suino-Powell K, Xu Y, Zhang C, Tao YG, Tolbert WD, Simons Jr. SS, Xu HE. 2008. Doubling the size of the glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding pocket by deacylcortivazol. Mol Cell Biol 28(6):1915–1923.     PubMed     Article 

Xu HE, Li Y. 2008. Ligand-dependent and –independent regulation of PPARg and orphan nuclear receptors. Sci Signal 1(48): pe52.      PubMed     Article 


Guo D, Sarkar J, Suino-Powell K, Xu Y, Matsumoto K, Jia Y, Yu S, Khare S, Haldar K, Rao MS, Foreman JE, Monga SPS, Peters JM, Xu HE, Reddy JK. 2007. Induction of nuclear translocation of constituitive androstane receptor by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α synthetic ligands in mouse liver. J Biol Chem 282(50): 36766–36776.     PubMed     Article  

Tolbert WD, Daugherty J, Gao C, Xie Q, Miranti C, Gherardi E, Vande Woude GF, Xu HE. 2007. A mechanistic basis for converting a receptor tyrosine kinase agonist to an antagonist. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(37): 4592–14597.     PubMed     Article 


Choi M, Moschetta A, Bookout AL, Peng L, Umetani M, Holmstrom SR, Suino-Powell K, Xu HE, Richardson JA, Gerard RD, Mangelsdorf DJ, Kliewer SA. 2006. Identification of a hormonal basis for gallbladder filling. Nat Med 12(11): 1253–1235.     PubMed     Article 

Motola DL, Cummins CL, Rottiers V, Sharma KK, Li T, Li Y, Suino-Powell K, Xu HE, Auchus RJ, Antebi A, Mangelsdorf DJ. 2006. Identification of ligands for DAF-12 that govern dauer formation and reproduction in C. elegansCell 124(6): 1209–1223.     PubMed     Article 


Li Y, Choi M, Cavey G, Daugherty J, Suino K, Kovach A, Bingham NC, Kliewer SA, Xu HE. 2005. Crystallographic identification and functional characterization of phospholipids as ligands for the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1. Mol Cell 17(4):491–502.     PubMed     Article  

Li Y, Choi M, Suino K, Kovach A, Daugherty J, Kliewer SA, Xu HE. 2005. Structural and biochemical basis for selective repression of the orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog 1 by small heterodimer partner. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(27):9505–9510.     PubMed     Article  

Li Y, Suino K, Daugherty J, Xu HE. 2005. Structural and biochemical mechanisms for the specificity of hormone binding and coactivator assembly by mineralocorticoid receptor. Mol Cell 19(3):367–380.     PubMed     Article  


Suino K, Peng L, Reynolds R, Li Y, Cha JY, Repa JJ, Kliewer SA, Xu HE. 2004. The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR: structural determinants of constitutive activation and heterodimerization. Mol Cell 16(6): 893–906.     PubMed     Article  


Li Y, Lambert MH, Xu HE. 2003. Activation of nuclear receptors: a perspective from structural genomics. Structure 11(7):741–746.     PubMed     Article  


Bledsoe RK, Montana VG, Stanley TB, Delves CJ, Apolito CJ, McKee DD, Consler TG, Parks DJ, Stewart EL, Willson TM, Lambert MH, Moore JT, Pearce KH, Xu HE. 2002. Crystal structure of the glucocorticoid receptor ligand binding domain reveals a novel mode of receptor dimerization and coactivator recognition. Cell 110(1): 93–105.     PubMed     Article  

Xu HE, Stanley TB, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Shearer BG, Cobb JE, McKee DD, Galardi CM, Plunket KD, Nolte RT, Moore JT, Kliewer SA, Willson TM, Stimmel JB.2002. Structural basis for antagonist-mediated recruitment of nuclear co-repressors by PPARalpha. Nature 415(6873): 813–817.     PubMed     Article


Melcher K, and Xu HE. 2001. Gal80-Gal80 interaction on adjacent Gal4p binding sites is required for complete GAL gene repression. EMBO J 20(4): 841–851.     PubMed     Article  

Oliver Jr. WR, Shenk JL, Snaith MR, Russell CS, Plunket KD, Bodkin NL, Lewis MC, Winegar DA, Snaidman ML, Lambert MH, Xu HE, Sternbach DD, Kliewer SA, Hansen BC, Willson TM. 2001. A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist promotes reverse cholesterol transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(9): 5306–5311.     PubMed     Article

Xu HE,  Lambert MH, Montana VG, Plunket KD, Moore LB, Collins JL, Oplinger JA, Kliewer SA, Gampe Jr. RT, McKee DD, Moore JT, Willson TM. 2001. Structural determinants of ligand binding selectivity between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(24): 13119–13124.     PubMed     Article  


Gampe RT, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Miller AB, Bledsoe RK, Milburn MV, Kliewer SA, Willson TM, Xu HE. 2000. Asymmetry in the PPARgamma/RXRalpha crystal structure reveals the molecular basis of heterodimerization among nuclear receptors. Mol Cell 5(3): 545–555.     PubMed     Article

Gampe Jr. RT, Montana VG, Lambert MH, Wisely GB, Milburn MV, Xu HE. 2000. Structural basis for autorepression of retinoid X receptor by tetramer formation and the AF-2 helix. Genes Dev 14(17): 2239–2241.     PubMed     Article 


Xu HE, Lambert MH, Montana VG, Parks DJ, Blanchard SG, Brown PJ, Sternbach DD, Lehmann LM, Wisely GB, Willson TM, Kliewer SA, Milburn MV. 1999. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol Cell 3(3): 397–403.     PubMed     Article  

Xu HE, Rould MA, Xu W, Epstein JA, Pabo CO. 1999. Crystal structure of the human Pax6 paired domain-DNA complex reveals specific roles for the linker region and carboxy-terminal subdomain in DNA binding. Genes Dev 13(10): 1263–1275.     PubMed     Article